Basics of Photography

Discussion in 'Arts and Photography' started by JD666, Feb 12, 2013.

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  1. JD666

    JD666 RAID Leader Staff Member

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    Calling on the photography gurus and enthusiasts to shed light on basic ideas, tips, tricks of photography.

    Hoping to get some answers on whats F, iso, aperture, shutter speed, and what not. I went bonkers trying to figure out the settings on a friend's DSLR recently. :mad:

    Let's start with some basics that will benefit everyone reading this thread. Tagging Stuge Aragorn to provide some beginners info.

    Others also please chip in! Trying to prepare a basic guide for beginners!

    Thanks in advance!
     
  2. JD666

    JD666 RAID Leader Staff Member

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  3. Rockfella

    Rockfella Nordic Staff Member

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    A picture speaks more than a thousand words.. this picture although looks simple was clicked by the award winning Canon A1 (when there were no digital cameras).
    ISO: 100.
    Aperture: 22 (for maximum depth of field)
    Shutter: 1 sec.
    Processing: Manual.
    Tripod used.
    Location: Zakir Hussain Marg flyover (i took this one before making sure there were no HMV/LMV on the flyover 'coz otherwise the camera would shake even with a tripod ;))
    Circa: 2000/2001.
    NOTE: These are old scans hence picture quality is not great :p

    3.jpg
     
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  4. Rockfella

    Rockfella Nordic Staff Member

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    This one was taken in a studio. I don't remember the camera settings as everything was set using a light meter.
    Lens was 28mm wide angle.
    Circa: 2000/2001.
    Note: This is a scan too.

    5.jpg
     
  5. Rockfella

    Rockfella Nordic Staff Member

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    We need Aragorn and Stuge to throw some light.... :clap:
     
  6. JD666

    JD666 RAID Leader Staff Member

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    We need to share information here.. not tutorials that one can link to online. Getting my drift?
     
  7. Rockfella

    Rockfella Nordic Staff Member

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    Aragorn & Stuge will help beginners, i'm an old timer and don't handle cameras now, heck even my phone doesnot have a camera :)
     
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  8. Aragorn

    Aragorn RAID Rookie

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    Why not make it a question/answer kind of thing. Very difficult to help without knowing what doubt a person has. If i type a wall of text, that will just become another tutorial (already wrote a 11 page guide on E long time back).

    So, shoot the questions.
     
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  9. JD666

    JD666 RAID Leader Staff Member

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    Okay for starters, what F value got to do with a photograph? As in how does it affect a photograph? and what settings are good in what kind of light etc etc.
     
  10. Aragorn

    Aragorn RAID Rookie

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    There are 3 things that contribute to the exposure of a photo. All 3 things in turn have an impact on another "aspect".

    1. Shutter Speed (impacts motion blur)
    2. Aperture (denoted by F number) - (impacts depth of field)
    3. ISO (impacts Noise)

    You are interested in the second one for this post. So, here goes:

    F-Number - I will see these values as 1.4, 1.8, 2.8, 5.6, 22, 28 etc.
    Lower the F number means BIGGER the aperture. Larger the F number means SMALLER the aperture. Aperture simply means how much the lens is open (the blades in the lens). So and lower F number makes u get in more light inside. Hence, you get better exposure at smaller F number values. However, at smaller F number, the depth of field gets really narrow and you won't be able to get everything in the scene in focus.

    So based on what you are shooting and what kind of image output you need, you have to carefully balance the 3 aspects in mentioned and then decide what is the best way to control the exposure. Its a balance of all 3 - F, Shutter and ISO that helps you take a good image. In auto mode, the camera selects all the 3 values on its own and that is why i hate the auto mode :p.

    You can ask your doubts now, based on my wall of text :p
     
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  11. BANHAMMER

    BANHAMMER Teh Almighty BanHammer Staff Member

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    Can you explain a bit more about how lighting conditions affect these values and what are the relevant adjustment you have to do these three?
     
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  12. JD666

    JD666 RAID Leader Staff Member

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    Thanks Aragorn, I do have some more questions about the focus/depth etc. Will post once i phrase em.
     
  13. harryneopotter

    harryneopotter NEO is my middle name ! Staff Member

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    ok..here goes ..

    When clicking a pic from any camera, the most important factor is LIGHT. In low light, you will get dark and noisy images, but on the other hand, if there is too much light, you will get an overexposed and burnt image. The trinity of "F stop, ISO and Shutter speed" help us in these kind of situations.

    1. F Stop - as told by Aragorn, F-Stop or Aperture means how much the lens is open. In low light cases, opening the aperture as much a possible helps more light to come in on the sensor, to make the pic brighter. But, this will lead to a very narrow/shallow Depth of Field, or in other words, the camera will focus at one point only, and everything behind that will be out of focus. Narrow Depth of Field can be desirable if you are clicking macros or product photography, where a blurred/out of focus background gives a good view of the subject.

    Wat it does - Larger Aperture/Smaller F number will give brighter pics in low light. Smaller Aperture will give sharp images with everything in focus.

    When to Increase the F-number - Increase if u want more things in focus and have proper lighting. Or if there is too much light and less light is needed to enter the lens.

    When to Decrease - Decrease if the light is low, or u want the background out of focus.


    2. Shutter Speed - This, as the names suggests, is speed of shutter. Speed means for how long the shutter will remain open to let the light in to capture the photograph. This is generally measured in Seconds ( 1, 5 , 1/10, 1/250). The longer the shutter remains open, the more light will enter the lens, and brighter the pic will be. But the drawback of opening it for longer periods is motion blur. Any action happening in front of the camera for the duration the shutter remains open, will be captured in the image. This can cause blurry images in case of moving subjects (humans, vehicles, action shots).

    Wat it does - Control the amount of time the shutter remains open to let the light in.

    When to Increase (lower the time)- When there is ample light and shooting moving subjects. Or if there is too much light.

    When to Decrease - When shooting still subjects in low light. Or when motion blur is desired.



    3. ISO - ISO measures the light sensitivity. Increasing the ISO increase light sensitivity, means brighter picture. But, increasing ISO leads to more noise in the picture.


    Wat it does - Controls the light sensitivity.

    When to Increase - When light is low. But only till the noise levels are acceptable.

    When to Decrease - Too much light, so to prevent overexposed images.
     
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  14. TheDuke

    TheDuke RAID Rookie

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    What would the relation be between F-Stop and ISO then? Or Aperture and ISO? How to decide, which to adjust and which no to
     
  15. Stuge

    Stuge RAID Rookie

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    Smaller the aperture means longer the shutter speed .To counter these you can increase the iso ,to shoot at a faster shutter speed ,but with grain added to your images .Its better if you try this on the camera instead of just reading this like a comprehension to get more hold of this funda .
     
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